Elevators are very important tools of transportation, especially among tall buildings. Today, we learn about the elevator components and their functions.
Elevator’s composition can be divided into eight systems: traction system, guidance system, car, door system, weight balance system, electric drive system, electrical control system, safety protection device.
The traction system is mainly composed of tractor, traction wire rope, guide wheel and return rope wheel. Among them, tractor is the power source of elevator, which includes motor, coupling, brake, gearbox, frame and traction wheel.
The guiding system is composed of guide rail, guide rail support and guide shoes. Its function is to restrict the freedom of motion of the car and counterweight, so that the car and counterweight can only move up and down along the guide rail.
A car is a component used to transport passengers and cargo. The main components are a car frame and a car.
The elevator door system can be divided into two kinds: one is the floor door installed at the entrance of the shaft and the other is the car door installed at the entrance of the car. Layer doors and car doors can be divided into middle doors, side doors, vertical sliding doors, hinged doors and so on. The middle door is mainly used in passenger elevator, the side door is widely used in cargo elevator and hospital bed elevator, and the vertical sliding door is mainly used in dumbwaiter elevator and huge car elevator. Hinged doors are widely used in residential elevators.
Weight Balancing System
The weight balance system consists of counterweight and compensation device. The traction condition is reconstructed and the rated load is balanced. The compensation device is used to compensate for the influence of the length of the car and the towed wire rope on the operation of the elevator in the high-rise elevator.
Balancing the weight of the car and compensating the weight of the towing rope in the high-rise elevator form a weighting and compensating chain.
Electric Drive System
The electric drive system consists of tractor, power supply system and speed feedback device. Traction motor is the power source of elevator. Speed feedback device provides actual speed signal of elevator operation for speed control system to realize speed regulation.
Electric Control System
The electric control system is composed of control device, position display device, control cabinet, flat layer device, etc. It is used to operate and control the elevator. The control device includes a button operating box in the car, a call button in the floor station, a repair or emergency operating box in the car roof and the engine room. The control cabinet is installed in the engine room, which is composed of various electrical components. It undertakes the logical management and speed control of elevator signals. Position display device refers to the installation of car position, which is installed inside the car and outside the door of the station.
Safety Protection Device
The function of safety protection device is to ensure the safe use of elevator and prevent all accidents that endanger personal safety. Its components include speed limiter, safety clamp, buffer terminal protection, overspeed protection, phase-breaking and phase-staggering protection, upper and lower limit, layer door lock and electric interlocking device of car door, etc.
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